Consensus Protocols: A Paxos Implementation

It’s one thing to wax lyrical about an algorithm or protocol having simply read the paper it appeared in. It’s another to have actually taken the time to build an implementation. There are many slips twixt hand and mouth, and the little details that you’ve abstracted away at the point of reading come back to bite you hard at the point of writing.

I’m a big fan of building things to understand them – this blog is essentially an expression of that idea, as the act of constructing an explanation of something helps me understand it better. Still, I felt that in order to be properly useful, this blog probably needed more code.

So when, yesterday, it was suggested I back up my previous post on Paxos with a toy implementation I had plenty of motivation to pick up the gauntlet. However, I’m super-pressed for time at the moment while I write my PhD thesis, so I gave myself a deadline of a few hours, just to keep it interesting.

A few hours later, I’d written this from-scratch implementation of Paxos. There’s enough interesting stuff in it, I think, to warrant this post on how it works. Hopefully some of you will find it useful, and something you can use as a springboard to your own implementations. You can run an example by simply invoking python toy_paxos.py.

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Consensus Protocols: Paxos

You can’t really read two articles about distributed systems today without someone mentioning the Paxos algorithm. Google use it in Chubby, Yahoo use it, or something a bit like it, in ZooKeeper and it seems that it’s considered the ne plus ultra of consensus algorithms. It also comes with a reputation as being fantastically difficult to understand – a subtle, complex algorithm that is only properly appreciated by a select few.

This is kind of true and not true at the same time. Paxos is an algorithm whose entire behaviour is subtly difficult to grasp. However, the algorithm itself is fairly intuitive, and certainly relatively simple. In this article I’ll describe how basic Paxos operates, with reference to previous articles on two-phase and three-phase commit. I’ve included a bibliography at the end, for those who want plenty more detail.
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